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Primer on artificial intelligence and robotics
This article provides an introduction to artificial intelligence, robotics, and research streams that examine the economic and organizational consequences of these and related technologies. We describe the nascent research on artificial intelligence and robotics in the economics and management literature and summarize the dominant approaches taken by scholars in this area.
This article is a primer on artificial intelligence, robotics, and automation. To begin, we provide definitions of the constructs and describe the key questions that have been addressed so far. We also describe ways in which organizational scholars have been using artificial intelligence tools as part of their research methodology.
Studies of artificial intelligence and robotics base their theory and analysis on constructs of automation, robotics, artificial intelligence and machine learning, and automation. It is important that organizational scholars carefully define any such constructs in their studies and to avoid confusing these related but distinct constructs.
Automation is not a new concept, as innovations such as the steam engine or the cotton gin can be viewed as automating previously manual tasks.
While artificial intelligence, robotics, and automation are all related concepts, it is important to be aware of the distinctions between each of these constructs. Robotics is largely focused on technologies that could be classified as “manipulators” as per the IFR definition, and accordingly, more directly relates to the automation of physical tasks. On the other hand, artificial intelligence does not require physical manipulation, but rather computer-based learning. The distinction between the two technologies can become fuzzier as applications of artificial intelligence may involve robotics or vice versa.
In many cases, a computer or robot may be able to complete relatively low-value tasks, freeing up the human to focus efforts instead on high-value tasks.
Similarly, artificial intelligence and robotics technology have the capacity to reshape firms and change the structure of organizations dramatically. As discussed above, the adoption of artificial intelligence and robotics technologies will likely alter the bundle of skills and tasks that many occupations are comprised of. By that aspect alone, these technologies will reshape organizations and force firms to restructure themselves to account for these changes. In addition, the composition of the labor force may change to adopt to the new set of skills that are most valued.
There are a variety of other questions surrounding artificial intelligence and robotics that we encourage organizational scholars to turn to. One topic that has yet to be explored in much detail surrounds the establishment and firm-level consequences for adoption of artificial intelligence and robotics technology. Research could examine performance consequences as well as outcomes related to firm organization and strategy. Scholars can study in what circumstances and in what kinds of firms such adoption has the greatest impact. The adoption of the technology itself can be viewed as an outcome, and scholars can examine what circumstances and factors encourage or discourage the use of these technologies. Certain industries, management styles, or organizational forms may be particularly quick to adopt, and market level forces may also impact the adoption decision. Industry and organizational factors may play a role as well as the backgrounds of individuals and managers within organizations.
There will be a need to evaluate what skills and tasks are still valuable in the labor market compared to skills and tasks that can now be fully automated.
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The Impact of Artificial intelligence and Robotics on the Future Employment Opportunities
The widespread human-robot interaction is increasing progressively as robots have made the life of everyone easy-going and comfortable. In this work, we have analysed the behaviour and characteristics of various types of robots. We have also studied the outgrowing relation between robotics and humans. In our analysis, we also have a selection of aspects of this field, which are done by the numerous technologists as well as scientists. We are interested in exploring the functioning of the human brain by generating a functioning system that resolves problems and gives satisfactory results. Artificial intelligence is a vast field that is also pushing its way in the domain of healthcare, business and quality assurance. Various researches disclose that the corporate sector is joining artificial intelligence to estimate the supply-demand concept and automate human resource systems. The public sector is also developing different intelligent machines for security surveillance and malfunction detection of critical systems like nuclear reactors. Artificial intelligence and robotics are also phenomenal to implement the law and order enforcement without any danger. As artificial intelligence is growing, employment in this domain is also increasing due to the high demand of intelligent machines in each sector worldwide.
We have done a systematic analysis of various kinds of robots by utilizing the comparison parameters to demonstrate the fundamental objective of the development of the robots. The main objective of our research is to expose the consequences of the robotics on human employment opportunities in all the areas.
• While making crucial decisions, intelligent systems can be governed by unprejudiced standards so that decisions can be made practically, based on facts and data. Productivity expansions have so far always led to an upgrading of living circumstances for everybody.
• The significant advantage for employees is that the burden of labor-intensive may reduce for them; tedious, dull work can be done via self-ruling frameworks.
Robots cannot perform a task unless we direct them to do so.
Self-ruling robots are confronting an assortment of open situations, and differing qualities of assignments are incapable of depending on the primary leadership abilities of a human designer. There is a need for showing the complexity of thinking capacities required to comprehend their surroundings and present surroundings and to perform deliberately. In the paper, we have alluded to such thinking abilities as pondering capacities, firmly consistent inside a mind-boggling design. We have introduced an outline of the best in class for some of them. Be that as it may, let us demand once more: the fringe between them is not fresh.
Artificial intelligence, robotics and eye surgery: are we overfitted?
Historically, the first in-human–robot-assisted retinal surgery occurred nearly 30 years after the first experimental papers on the subject. Similarly, artificial intelligence emerged decades ago and it is only now being more fully realized in ophthalmology. The delay between conception and application has in part been due to the necessary technological advances required to implement new processing strategies. Chief among these has been the better matched processing power of specialty graphics processing units for machine learning. Transcending the classic concept of robots performing repetitive tasks, artificial intelligence and machine learning are related concepts that has proven their abilities to design concepts and solve problems. The implication of such abilities being that future machines may further intrude on the domain of heretofore “human-reserved” tasks. Although the potential of artificial intelligence/machine learning is profound, present marketing promises and hype exceeds its stage of development, analogous to the seventieth century mathematical “boom” with algebra. Nevertheless robotic systems augmented by machine learning may eventually improve robot-assisted retinal surgery and could potentially transform the discipline.
In conclusion, neither artificial intelligence nor robotics is a novel concept, until artificial intelligence is strategically incorporated into robotic systems. Many obstacles exist to human end user adoption of robotics including but not limited to cost, size, functional limits, accuracy, human acceptance and importantly, clearly superior outcomes and safety. In retinal procedures, robotic platforms show a promising role and first human studies are encouraging. That artificial intelligence might enhance these systems is logical, the form that such augmentation takes is only now emerging. What the ultimate form will be is anyone’s guess, as is the eventual role of humans in microsurgery.
The History of Artificial Intelligence
Breaching the initial fog of AI revealed a mountain of obstacles. The biggest was the lack of computational power to do anything substantial: computers simply couldn’t store enough information or process it fast enough. In order to communicate, for example, one needs to know the meanings of many words and understand them in many combinations. Hans Moravec, a doctoral student of McCarthy at the time, stated that “computers were still millions of times too weak to exhibit intelligence.
Ironically, in the absence of government funding and public hype, AI thrived. During the 1990s and 2000s, many of the landmark goals of artificial intelligence had been achieved. In 1997, reigning world chess champion and grand master Gary Kasparov was defeated by IBM’s Deep Blue, a chess playing computer program. In the same year, speech recognition software, developed by Dragon Systems, was implemented on Windows. This was another great step forward but in the direction of the spoken language interpretation endeavor. It seemed that there wasn’t a problem machines couldn’t handle.
The application of artificial intelligence in this regard has already been quite fruitful in several industries such as technology, banking, marketing, and entertainment. We’ve seen that even if algorithms don’t improve much, big data and massive computing simply allow artificial intelligence to learn through brute force. There may be evidence that Moore’s law is slowing down a tad, but the increase in data certainly hasn’t lost any momentum.
Trust Toward Robots and Artificial Intelligence: An Experimental Approach to Human–Technology Interactions Online
This article reports the results based on a trust game experiment involving robots and AI.
Visual anonymity in the experimental context might also have an impact on behavior. In this type of experiment, players might consider the situation such that they would not ever meet the opponent again.
Our study is based on a minimal condition, giving few cues about the nature of robots and AI. Such minimal conditions are important, especially when analyzing trust and behavior online, where various cues are left out. However, this decision is also a limitation of the study, as we cannot be sure that all participants interpreted the control group opponents as humans.
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Future studies could, however, describe one of the experimental groups explicitly as humans. It would also be good to use female names, as the male name used in our study was considered less trustworthy than the nickname. It might also be possible to conduct an experiment with various types of robots and AI avatars using trust game settings. In addition, more studies on individual factors, such as personality, would be needed, as our results showed that they impacted trust.
AO contributed to the conceptualization, data collection, investigation, methodology, formal analysis, writing original draft, supervision, and funding acquisition. NS contributed to the conceptualization, data collection, investigation, methodology, reviewing and editing the manuscript, and visualization. RL contributed to the conceptualization, investigation, reviewing and editing the manuscript. AK contributed to the methodology, investigation, and review and editing the manuscript.
Artificial Intelligence: Does Consciousness Matter?
Humanoid Robot Head Design Based on Uncanny Valley and FACS
Although the second peak is higher, there is a far greater risk of falling into the uncanny valley. We predict that it is possible to produce a safe familiarity by a non-human-like design.
As shown in Figures 2 and 3, we devise the control architecture of robot head, use computer vision and sensors to get information from human, and send it to three databases.
Robots obtain and analyze information, make comprehensive decisions, and finally realize their inner emotional states through the head expression, such as showing a smiling, upset, happy, or scared expression.
For example, when people expressed surprise, the eyebrows lift and bend higher and eyebrow skin will be stretched. When eyes are wide open, upper eyelid will be pushed up, but when the chin of the face falls, mouth will open. If the head of the emotional robot design is consistent with this, you will get a surprised face. We design the whole framework of robot head, which gives us a blueprint of robot head, so we can make it step by step.
Mount head shell: although we have made the “bones” of the robot head, we still cannot install facial skin directly.
Install facial skin: we often feel bad about the head of facial damaged skin; most of the time ordinary people feel disgusted about the bare skull. I would not be surprised that you are afraid of the robot head in Figure 4.
As shown in Figure 5, first factor in red line is similarity from 1 to 10, and 10 is the most similar.
In order to assess the effect of artificial expression, we invited 100 students and 50 teachers to appraise our robot head and score from 0 to 10.
Students and teachers who took the test did not feel horrible, and the most interesting part is eye.
The 2014 Survey: Impacts of AI and robotics by 2025
Among the key themes emerging from 1,896 respondents’ answers were: – Advances in technology may displace certain types of work, but historically they have been a net creator of jobs. – We will adapt to these changes by inventing entirely new types of work, and by taking advantage of uniquely human capabilities. – Technology will free us from day-to-day drudgery, and allow us to define our relationship with “work” in a more positive and socially beneficial way. – Ultimately, we as a society control our own destiny through the choices we make. – Automation has thus far impacted mostly blue-collar employment; the coming wave of innovation threatens to upend white-collar work as well.
These two groups also share certain hopes and concerns about the impact of technology on employment.
AI and robotics in the European restaurant sector: Assessing potentials for process innovation in a high-contact service industry
The paper is structured as follows: The foundation part provides related research and describes the potential of AI and robotics in service processes. It also contains an overview of relevant research in the restaurant sector. After describing the methodology in section 3, the fourth section describes key results of the empirical analysis. Finally, a reference process is proposed to guide future decision processes of service managers.
The following section provides an overview of the methodology and presents the data collection and data coding process. Current AI and robotics service solutions in the European restaurant market are analyzed that take advantage of AI and robotics technologies.
The political choreography of the Sophia robot: beyond robot rights and citizenship to political performances for the social robotics market
This playful dialogue took place between David Hanson and his designed robot at a robotics trade show in Austin, Texas in March 2016. David Hanson, founder of Hanson Robotics, launched the Sophia robot by ‘chatting’ with it. A video released by CNBC about Sophia quickly garnered millions of views. The world’s leading newspapers including The New York Times, The Guardian, The China Daily, The Times of India and The Sydney Morning Herald published stories about Sophia.
What do we mean by ‘political choreography’? The conceptualisation of choreography provides methodological tools to analyse more systemically underlying political and economic interests behind the Sophia project. We do not use the notion of choreography with reference to dancing.
According to Goertzel, the worldwide media attention the Sophia robot garnered starting in 2017 was not a planned publicity stunt by the company.
The traditional media have played a pivotal role in giving publicity to Hanson Robotics to advance its technological utopia about the future of humanoid robots. The robot evolved into an iconic figure in a fairly short time promoting the idea of the robot as an almost living being. Hanson Robotics has closely monitored Sophia’s public image by preventing the media and journalists from asking Sophia questions that are too difficult or politically sensitive.
While we should recognize the joint human/nonhuman agency in these performances, we should also ask who choreographs us.
It looks like that the embodiment as the special ability offered by social robots is also a stumbling block for designers and social robot business. Desktop assistants, such as Amazon Echo and Google Home, have provided many features at a much lower cost than social robots. Due to the high price, most social robots are mainly marketed for use by companies and public organizations under the headings of care robots or educational robotics. However, it is highly questionable how beneficial the technologies have actually been in these contexts.
The FII investment forum in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia in 2017 was preceded by the media spectacle in which the Sophia robot was granted Saudi citizenship. What that citizenship meant in practice was not specified in detail by the Saudi authorities or Hanson Robotics. However, the granting of citizenship can be seen as a kind of the culmination point in the political choreography of the Sophia robot.
It should be noted that the FII event was launched and hosted by the Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia, Mohammad bin Salman. His policy was widely condemned in the West after the assassination of journalist Jamal Khashogg by a 15-member squad of Saudi assassins. The extensive arrangements for the 2018 FII Economic Forum were largely cancelled when many invited speakers, companies and media houses refused bin Salman’s invitation to come to Riyadh. Although the FII 2018 Economic Forum eventually failed for Saudi Arabia, the 2017 Forum appears to be a successful media performance from the perspective of both Hanson Robotics and bin Salman.
AI and Law What should a robot be allowed to do?
On the other hand, there is the question of who should benefit when AI produces intellectual property. The works they created, however, were mostly based on random algorithms that cannot be compared in any way with human intelligence. In the past ten years, however, AI seems to have “reached a new level of development”, as the BMWi acknowledged in its paper. Today robots write entire film scripts and compose pieces of music. It can hardly be compared with the randomised doodles from back then. So can a robot become a creator – an originator? Lawyers like to refer to a precedent from the animal world. Slater gave his camera to a macaque called Naruto, who snapped a “monkey selfie” that went viral three years later and spread around the world. The animal rights organisation, Peta, tried to sue, on behalf of Naruto, for the proceeds from the photo. This was followed by a lawsuit lasting several years, which was fought in the United States. In 2017, Slater agreed to an out-of-court settlement and pledged to donate a quarter of the future proceeds from the Naturo selfie to Peta. The San Francisco Court of Appeal, however, did not accept the settlement. The lawsuit was dismissed on the grounds that Naturo itself had no say in the settlement and the aim all along had been to set a precedent. In addition, Peta had to pay the photographer’s legal fees. He later sued the German punk band, Terrorgruppe, for using the photo on a record cover without his authorisation. The US Copyright Office stated that copyrights can only be granted to humans and therefore not to animals – or robots. Currently, courts and governments do not absolve people of their responsibility for the AI they have developed, even if their inventions become inventors themselves. The rights and obligations remain with the users of the AI or with those who operate it. The British Copyright Designs and Patent Act came to this decision back in 1988 when the first home computers raised questions similar to those posed by the “learning robot” today. The EU Commission also seems to be sympathetic to this idea.
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Opinion: Robots and AI could soon have feelings, hopes and rights … we must prepare for the reckoning
For some, the question of whether or not the human race will live to see a 22nd century turns upon this latter consideration. While forecasting the imminence of an AI-centric future remains a matter of intense debate, we will need to come to terms with it.
It is clear, however, that the European Parliament is making inroads towards taking an AI-centric future seriously. Included in this draft proposal is preliminary guidance on what it calls “electronic personhood” that would ensure corresponding rights and obligations for the most sophisticated AI.
Yes, driverless cars are problematic, but only in a world where traditional cars exist.
It goes without saying that the very notion of making separate, transferable, editable copies of human beings embodied in robotic form poses both conceptual and practical legal challenges.
Imagine a robot that has wheels and can pick up objects and put them down. It has sensing capabilities so that it can recognize the objects that it must manipulate and can avoid obstacles. It can be given orders in natural language and obey them, making reasonable choices about what to do when its goals conflict. Such a robot could be used in an office environment to deliver packages, mail, and/or coffee, or it could be embedded in a wheelchair to help disabled people.
The robot can only push doors, and the directions of the doors in the diagram reflect the directions in which the robot can travel. Rooms require keys, and those keys can be obtained from various sources. The robot must deliver parcels, beverages, and dishes from room to room.
Its observation at time t only depends on the state at time t. The robot’s location at time t+1 depends on its location at time t and its action at time t.
A robot is a container for AI,
There is one class of “robots” that does not move, and does not even have physical presence; bot programs, like chatbots, that operate inside systems. I do not consider them robots, because they are not physical devices operating in the real world.
So, technically you can create a robot that doesn’t require any kind of complex algorithms to take decisions. Some other examples of robots are, a robotic arm, automated control systems in industries, etc.
Some examples of AI are speech recognition, face recognition, natural language processing, etc.
Predicted Influences of Artificial Intelligence on the Domains of Nursing: Scoping Review
In addition to the electronic database searches, a targeted website search was performed to access relevant gray literature. Abstracts and full-text studies were independently screened by 2 reviewers using prespecified inclusion and exclusion criteria. Included articles focused on nursing and digital health technologies that incorporate AI.
Furthermore, to ensure that the nursing-AI relationship promotes person-centered compassionate care, it will be important to understand how nurses may contribute to the co-design of AIHTs.
As mentioned previously, there is a dearth of literature on the topic of compassionate care, nursing, and AI.
Strong and proactive nursing leadership in all roles, sectors, and domains will be required to effectively implement these technologies in ways that preserve person-centered compassionate care.
The paucity of literature has shown that the study of AI and compassionate care is still in its infancy, and more research on this topic is required.
AI has already begun to shape nursing roles, workflows, and the nurse-patient relationship.
The Computer Revolution/Artificial Intelligence/Robotics
Robotics is the science or technology of designing, building and using robots. Robotics is the use of computer-controlled robots to perform manual tasks. Robots are commonly used by the military and businesses to complete tasks that are dangerous for people, such as defusing bombs, exploring shipwrecks, and mines. They are also used to perform monotonous jobs, such as on an assembly line. There are personal or service robots to assist with personal tasks. Robotics research is continuing to make smarter and more capable robots. NASA researchers have developed a way to make a crew of robots work together to grasp, lift, and more heavy loads across rough, varied terrain. The software allows the robots to “share a brain” so that each robot knows what the rest are doing.
Recently, in a partnership with a company called Boston Dynamics, they have created a four legged robot that is able to sprint up to speeds of 28. This robot is also able to regain it’s balance if it is facing a dynamic terrain or is pushed from the side.
Our service men and women often carry heavy combat loads which increases the potential for injuries. Lockheed Martin has come up with this new technology called HULC exoskeleton back in 2010. This design was much heavier and the battery power would die down after about an hour. When carrying such heavy loads this weight is transferred to the ground through powered titanium legs without loss of mobility. The HULC is a completely un-tethered, hydraulic-powered anthropomorphic exoskeleton. This can provide users with the ability to carry loads of up to 200 pounds for longer periods of time and over all types of terrain. This newer design can go up to 8 hours and lasts for days on a single charge if you are just standing guard. It is flexible enough for deep squats, crawls and upper-body lifting. There is a micro-computer attached within the suit that moves with the individual. Lockheed Martin is also exploring exoskeleton designs for industrial use and a wider variety of military mission specific applications. The HULC is now being revamped to be smaller, lighter, and more energy-efficient, including an unloaded machine gun on a pivoting mechanical arm. HULC adds an artificial external spine, hips, and legs to a soldier’s flesh and bones. They are also working on a fuel cell type which would last about 72 hours in the harshest conditions.
Google’s new project is working on cars that use artificial intelligence to drive themselves without the need of any human intervention. These vehicles can sense anything near the vehicle, they mimic the decision a driver makes, and they are programmed with road maps and speed limit information. Not only can the AI do everything that a human can, it can do it better. Robot drivers react faster than humans, have 360-degree perception, and do not get distracted, sleepy or intoxicated. These new vehicles could make driving safer and also be better for the environment. They can optimize the amount of fuel used and if accidents are no longer a concern, they could be built lighter thus requiring even less fuel. If this sounds too farfetched, consider the fact that Google has already drove the AI vehicles on the road and through city traffic.
Robots can be used to search for hazardous materials or gas leaks, all of which could potentially be dangerous for humans. Industries that use robots for these dangerous tasks include the coal mining industry. These robots can be used to mine coal or even to search for people in collapsed mines. They can also be used in assembly lines to speed up production and ensure that the product is consistently up to standards. Another area where robots are frequently used is in the medical field. A doctor can control the robot to make his rounds, called “virtual rounds”, without ever leaving his office. In these robot-assisted surgeries, surgeons control the actions of the robot, allowing for more accurate results, and a steadier hand. They can be used to help navigate through caves, trails, buildings and other places to see if they are safe enough for the soldiers to enter into. They are also useful in locating and disposing of bombs, landmines, and other kinds of explosive devices.Right now the military robots are controlled by the soldiers but researchers are currently working on autonomous robots that will be able to navigate by themselves.
Although there are many benefits in creating robots to benefit society, some people may have concerns with the idea of having robots around. Society has many concerns with the implications robots may cause, some may think that robots may come to close to realistic that may potentially harm humanity. Other concerns that may arise with the issue of having robots take over human jobs. Another disadvantage of having robots is that they may be expensive to build and maintain. Robots also have limited duties, so they are only able to perform specific task and are not able to think for themselves.
Artificial Intelligence: The New Frontier in Surgery
Artificial intelligence now well established in several industries has now begun to make a change with significant improvements in the practice of medicine.
A transition from traditional laparoscopic surgery to robotic surgery has already taken place.
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Advances in computing capability, machine engineering and robotics and the ever improving development of smart algorithms is allowing growth of the application of AI at a rapid pace.